However, the true divergent thinkers--the ones who are good at thinking about thinking and have a corner on metacognition--can come up with 200 uses.That's quite a long list! UK: Vermilion, Divergent Thinking (Creativity Research). Spending time and energy to solve problems or engage in cognitive processes such as divergent thinking do not amount to much in the real-world if nothing is ever produced. With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. Given that alpha wave activity is an inverse measure of cortical activity, this finding confirms that creativity is linked to task-related variation in cortical function. These three tasks vary in the extent to which performance is a function of reliance on divergent versus convergent processes: whereas the Alternate Uses Test is generally perceived to be a relatively ‘pure’ measure of divergent processes, the Remote Associates Test is considered to depend both on divergent and convergent processes, and intelligence tests are perceived to depend primarily on convergent processes. Lastly, assessing an individual's response to creative work or examining the degree to which an individual accepts or even initiates creative action is an important aspect of creativity that should be examined. Photo by Elvira Koneva / Shutterstock Divergent Thinking and Creativity. Rather than emphasizing one process such as divergent thinking, researchers using this approach have identified a wide variety of cognitive processes contributing to creativity. Seeing these two objects in this way would make it possible to utilize them as the basic materials for the construction of an electric switch. All ideas are valid for idea stimulation in divergent thinking. It typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, "non-linear" manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Specifically, the Alternate Uses Task activated a left-lateralized network comprising the inferior frontal gyrus extending to the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate. Specifically, whereas low-creativity subjects exhibited low EEG alpha on all three tasks, high-creative subjects exhibited high EEG alpha only during work on the Alternate Uses Test. ). Divergent thinking, or lateral thinking, is about generating multiple creative solutions to the same problem. Course design includes the length of a creativity course, the types of practice opportunities trainees are given (if any), and how the different training sessions are scheduled (i.e., massed versus distributed). So many people see but don't perceive. However, predictably, a different picture emerged from fMRI data. Continual growth of categorical knowledge by restructuring concepts is a creative phenomenon (Ward, Smith, & Vaid, 1997). Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. This event can be…, Today, we'll travel back several hundred years to the Renaissance to learn about Sandro Botticelli, one of the most renowned…, You've probably experienced a sudden (or gradual) loss of appetite before. © 2020 Exploring your mind | Blog about psychology and philosophy. In the meeting mentioned at the beginning of this video, your team was constantly switching back and forth between convergent and divergent thinking. Then explore new options through divergent thinking. The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. Scratchley and Hakstian (2000–2001) used a battery of divergent thinking tests that were developed for industrial settings, including three components: the brainstorming exercise, which requires finding many solutions for a management problem; the similarities exercise, which entails finding many similarities between two different objects; and the association exercise which is about finding a word that connects three dissimilar words. However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not have the same complete freedom. Training courses can be thought of as being made up of four primary components: the design of the course, the content included in the course, the way course content is delivered, and the media used during instruction. Unlike convergent thinking, where the individual gives the one correct or conventional response (e.g., “Who won the 1988 World Series?”), divergent thinking leads the individual to numerous and varied responses. M.A. To understand how this works a little better, let’s see what kind of psychological processes come into play. 14. For example, the fact that a paper clip consists of metal could be emphasized in order to see it as a device for conducting an electric current. IQ tests typically assume that there is one general intelligence (or g) that underlies every intelligent act—every single one. Our focus remains divergent thinking—what it is, how it happens, when it is necessary. This program was developed by Sidney Parnes and colleagues during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages of creative problem-solving. One benefit of using performance as a criterion for creativity is that performance is ultimately the outcome of primary concern in real-world settings. It usually happens in a free-flowing, spontaneous manner, where multiple creative ideas are engendered and evaluated. Decisions on what the next step should be are based on correctness, and this is decided in terms of absolute norms such as truth, justice, or beauty, which change only slowly. Maybe it's using … The key lies is in how we connect one idea to another. Following divergent thinking, ideas and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of log… Lateral Thinking: An Introduction. Another classic divergent thinking task is Match Problems. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389000777, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124105126000011, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389002260, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123747143000069, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389000315, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002254000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128097908000145, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128164006000043, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750006001129, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002254000057, Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), Why You are Probably More Creative (and Less Creative) Than You Think, The relationships between abstraction and creativity, Bertsch, 1983; Moraru, Memmert, & van der Kamp, 2016; Wyrick, 1968, Baughman & Mumford, 1995; Mobley, Doares, & Mumford, 1992, Akbari Chermahini & Hommel, 2010; Ueda, Tominaga, Kajimura, & Nomura, 2016, Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition), Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, International Journal of Psychophysiology. In traditional instruction, students are used to more analytical thinking or convergent thinking, but excellent problem solver also should have divergent thinking . (What can we change in how we have fun? Creativity Research, It talks, it whispers, it yells… It expresses itself however it can, or however we let it, sometimes. Table 5.2 lists examples of contrasting kinds of thinking favorable on the one hand for production of variability, on the other of orthodoxy. A motor-form divergent thinking task, consisting in producing acted motor forms (e.g., a basketball player), has been also developed (Palmiero et al., 2019). Components of creativity training courses. People who reorganized and generated new categories were discovered to be more capable of finding original solutions than when they worked with similar categories (Baughman & Mumford, 1995; Mobley, Doares, & Mumford, 1992). Although Guilford emphasized the importance of training children in divergent thinking, educational institutions have paid little attention to him. Course content includes the factual and conceptual knowledge about creativity the instructor attempts to communicate to the trainees but also includes the types of techniques the instructor promotes for increasing creativity. Admittedly, Guilford’s Structure of Intellect model was pointedly criticized, mostly because of the statistical methods used to separate the 180 cells (Carroll 1968). Are you asking if there are any exercises? Substitute one element of that idea for another. Divergent thinking takes place in a free-flowing, spontaneous manner and creates varieties of possible resolutions to another problem. They may arrive at what appears to be wrong answers, but when asked, they can justify those answers in clear, logical reasoning. Divergent Thinking (DT) is the ability to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions in an effort to find one that works. We’ve neglected spontaneity, wit, and captivating freedom. Also called: ‘Thinking … Variability-producing thinking is characterized as thinking that breaks the rules—of logic, of simplicity or symmetry, and of social conventions—by bringing together ideas that are usually kept separate. Other dimensions that bring ingenuity and vitality to their projects. He was president of the American Psychological Association and devoted his 1949 Presidential Address to creativity (Guilford 1950). The Use of Divergent Thinking to Improve Students’ Creativity in Writing (A Pre-Experimental Research). Divergent thinking refers to a way of solving problems wherein a variety of possible solutions are proposed in an effort to find one that works. On a cognitive level, one would expect a positive correlation between the number of hypotheses generated and the demand on monitoring resources and relations. This represents a more extensive description of the processes contributing to creative thought than divergent thinking alone. It can be highly productive to think differently, and it pays off in the long run. I use Divergent Thinking techniques with Teams when using the Design Thinking Double Diamond process, specifically during the Define and Discover phases to generate creative ideas spontaneously and in a free-flowing, non-linear way. Therefore, we need to learn how to use true divergent thinking. They also found an interaction of transformational leadership and anonymity for flexibility. If convergent thinking is applied then after, the very best answer can be picked out from the multiple solutions resulted due to divergent thinking. Whereas some match problems can be solved by a sequence of generate-evaluate cycles, others involve start states that create strong mental sets that implicitly obstruct certain transformations. The differences between divergent thinking in the top-down sense and divergent thinking in the bottom-up sense may seem trivial, and indeed, this is of little consequence to the general concept of divergent thinking. From this perspective divergent thinking is a kind of problem solving. Secondly, divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories. Are you stuck in a rut on the project? A thesis of English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar. To do so, we will focus on four areas in particular: Now here are four ways to improve the four areas above: “Synectics” is a term coined by psychologist William J. J. Gordon. For the next 35 years he attempted to prove exactly this. This should sensitize researchers to task features when interpreting imaging results. On the contrary, the use of divergent thinking in standardized tests is scarce because the test-takers do not create new knowledge or ideas during the test. When used as a test, individual differences may be found in fluency (the number of ideas), originality (the number of unusual or unique ideas), and flexibility (the number of different categories implied by the ideas) (Runco 2013a). Trainees then completed a set of exercises to practice the techniques they learned during training. Their results have shown that patients with focal right frontal lobe lesions were impaired specifically on those match problems that required set shifts. V. Drago, K.M. Unlike the Alternate Uses Task, Match Problems is a visuospatial problem-solving task. We use divergent thinking in the initial stages of ideation on a project or task—when we have a challenge to solve and we need to brainstorm or iterate on creative solutions. Almost all multiple choice tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to use convergent reasoning. See more ideas about divergent thinking, divergent, this or that questions. Convergent thinking is useful and necessary on many occasions. Divergent thinking/doing tests are scored in terms of fluency (number of ideas/motor solutions), flexibility (number of categories, mutually exclusive, encompassing ideas/motor solutions), and originality (uniqueness or infrequency of ideas, or overall evaluation of motor solutions by at least two independents judges). Presumably, homospatial thinking is the opposite of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from each other in separate spaces. Edward de Bono (1993) made an interesting and popular contribution to the discussion of creative thinking. … Divergent thinking is important in today’s modern world. Psychologist Nina Lieberman’s research in the very interesting book Playfulness: Its Relationship to Imagination and Creativity has something very relevant to add to this discussion. His Stanford prison experiment was only the beginning of…. They found a main effect for transformation leadership, with the higher transformational leadership group scoring higher in originality and elaboration than the low transformational leadership group. They concluded that the selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure same or similar skills. Following Markovitz (2013), firstly, an initial global level of divergent thinking sets the degree of abstraction of the procedure used to generate alternatives, which in turn defines the nature of the categories accessed. Course delivery includes variables such as how long the training lasts, the amount of lecture used, the amount of practice time given to trainees, the nature of the practice exercises, the amount of feedback provided to trainees, as well as other variables related to how the instructor communicated material to trainees in order to facilitate learning the content incorporated into the course. They also showed that a divergent thinking test used with the openness test has validity when workplace criteria are used. Problem finding, conceptual combination, and idea evaluation are only a few processes that have been identified as being important contributors to the creative process. First, generating additional hypotheses in divergent trials requires their maintenance in working memory. As additional solutions are generated, not only is there a need to update previous responses, but also to resolve the conflict between responses. The involvement of right dorsal lateral PFC in working memory for maintaining and storing information is well established. Chances are that if you have an imaginative child, you probably have a divergent thinker. However, the real problem is that we’ve been “trained” to only think this way. In many courses aimed at training people in divergent thinking, students are asked questions like the following: At the beginning, it may be hard to come up with even one idea. In other words, divergent thinking and presumably divergent doing would be underpinned by abstraction of the rules of generating alternatives that work at category level, further allowing access to different known categories and thereby fostering the creation of new categories. This test is composed by word-based exercises—verbal form (e.g., ask-and-guess causes and consequences, product improvement, unusual uses), and picture-based exercises—figural form (e.g., picture completion starting from given stimuli of shapes). These six stages include mess finding, problem finding, information finding, idea finding, solution finding, and acceptance finding. What kind of uses could you come up with if we gave you a toothbrush and a toothpick? People with “steep” semantic networks are governed more by logic and linear thinking. This symptom can become normal if it happens at…, In our current society, people often associate the word "addiction" with substance abuse. These analyses indicated that RIBS predicts entrepreneurship while the divergent thinking task based on SWOT analysis does not. Creativity Research, Herostratus Complex: Specialists in the Art of Posing, 3 Strategies to Process Obsessive Thoughts, My Greatest Triumph Is Having Achieved Emotional Independence, When Someone Makes You a Better Person You Know They Should Be in Your Life, Sandro Botticelli: Biography and Metamorphosis of the Soul, Philip Zimbardo, Author of The Lucifer Effect. In this manner, they are correlated. Guidelines for Divergent Thinking. What kind of things could you do with a brick and a pen? However, in the context of the complete design (or creative problem-solving) process, where divergent synthesis is followed by convergent analysis, it highlights an element that is critical to any discussion of the interaction between engineering design and creativity. Divergent thinking is employed when an individual is faced with an open-ended task (examples were given earlier—“How can a brick be used?”). This study sought whether higher divergent thinking ability could affect TOEFL score. Specifically, Vinod Goel and Oshin Vartanian have shown that whereas engagement in Match Problems was associated with activation in left dorsal lateral PFC and right ventral lateral PFC, the latter structure was activated exclusively when subjects successfully solved problems that required set shifting. However, scores from the SWOT are correlated with scores from the RIBS. ), Adapt it (What do people do to be less stressed at other workplaces? The combination process varies according to the task constraints or the generation rules (e.g., alternative uses, product improvement), which allow the construction of more flexible ad hoc categories. de Bono extended his model to distinguish between rock logic and water logic. While creative ideas are often the precursor to progress, they also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies. Divergent thinking refers to the way the mind generates ideas beyond proscribed expectations and rote thinking—what is usually referred to thinking outside the box, and is often associated with creativity. However, our schools and universities still prioritize a very convergent type of thinking in their methodology. When multivariate analyses were run by controlling for gender and group size, the significant main effects were for leadership and group conditions as well as an interaction effect of both on fluency and flexibility scores. These neuropsychological results have been corroborated with fMRI data. This training intervention was designed by Feldhusen and colleagues in the early 1980s and consists of 28 lessons on audio tape. You imagine what you desire, you will what you imagine, and at last you create what you will.”. O. Vartanian, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Trainees listen to 30 minute instructional sessions and work through a series of exercises for each session. Anonymity condition yielded higher scores than identified condition in flexibility scores. Therefore, we could also conclude that this type of thinking is also born out of a certain attitude towards life: free, cheerful, nonconformist, open to new experiences…, Bono, Edward (2014) Lateral Thinking: An Introduction. Therefore, the generation of original solutions during divergent thinking can be enabled by the combination of related and unrelated categories. The amount of new ideas is much higher than in convergent thinking, and the emphasis is placed on the overall picture of a situation, ideas, and problems. Psychologists who are experts in creativity say that people have different mental networks of association: We have all heard about how the right hemisphere of the brain is the creative side and the left is the logical side. Switching back and forth between the two may not seem like multitasking, but it is a form of multitasking. J.P. Guilford is usually given credit for distinguishing between convergent and divergent thinking, but a few earlier scientists did recognize the value of ideation. Identify differences (e.g., fly and butterfly), Identify similarities (e.g., blood and a poppy), Visual tracking (i.e., follow moving object with head and eyes), Tactile prehension (i.e., pick up particular object), J.J. Caughron, ... M.D. In fact, right dorsal lateral PFC has been implicated in tasks that require the integration of multiple relations and monitoring subgoal processes, as would be required here. How Can Leaders Use Divergent Thinking to Solve Problems? The composite of divergent thinking was correlated (both zero-order and part correlations) with the measure of global change and general managerial creativity, but not with the incremental change. Divergent th inking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner, such that the ideas are generated in a random, unorganized fashion. The cerebellum accounts for a little more than 10% of the total brain volume. Divergent thinking tests are also used in numerous educational programs and in various organizational training packages. Problem-solving is defined the act of resolving a complex, ill-defined problem using new ideas that have been developed using multiple pieces of information and expertise in order to provide a framework for implementing a solution. The Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was also administered (Runco, Plucker, & Lim, 2000–2001). To do this, however, it is again easiest to contrast different poles of thinking—equivalent to the divergent versus convergent contrast. Ames and Runco (2005) tested the usefulness of SWOT (the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis as an adapted version of divergent thinking tasks to predict entrepreneurship. Also, a main effect was found for anonymity. For this we recommend that you contact a reliable specialist. The most ingenious people use tree-like thought processes. However, behavioral addictions are equally important to…, Philip Zimbardo is a well-known and controversial social psychologist and researcher. Combine and Build – Use one idea as a springboard for … In addition, divergent doing tasks have also been developed (e.g., Bertsch, 1983; Moraru, Memmert, & van der Kamp, 2016; Wyrick, 1968) to assess divergence in motor domain, for example, asking participants to produce as many actions as possible on an agility ladder laid on the ground (e.g., stepping, skipping). Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. Divergent thinking may play several roles in organizations. Although I will deal with some other specific features of convergent thinking later in this chapter, I want to discuss some other kinds of thinking that are associated with the generation of variability and novelty. Rothenburg also introduced the term homospatial thinking. Rothenberg (1983) introduced the idea of janusian thinking, naming it after the Roman god Janus, who had two faces and thus could look in two directions at the same time so that he had the ability to deal simultaneously with pieces of information that would not normally be processed together. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. Additionally, the theoretical framework a course designer used in developing the course is likely to have a pervasive influence on all four of these factors. Mark A. Runco, in Creativity (Second Edition), 2014. Divergent thinking is the capacity to find relationships between ideas, concepts, and processes that, at first glance, lack any similarity. Advantages of using divergent thinking In no sense is this information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a substitute for the work of a qualified professional. Thus, access to different conceptual categories enables the activation of more original ideas. Being aware…, Mom, tell me again about how I was born. This enables subjects to remain noncommittal about solution paths and strategies while flexibly generating potential moves. In fact, it is also a type of thinking very common in children, where joy, imagination, and a fresh perspective make their reasoning more free. Jung (2000–2001) compared transformational and transactional leadership in the conditions of real versus nominal brainstorming groups. Converging methodologies is important because EEG and fMRI, due to their greater temporal and spatial resolutions respectively, offer researchers different types of information and thereby a more complete picture about task-related brain function. The key is to recognize which behavior you might need at any give point. The content in this publication is presented for informative purposes only. Note that DT is not a personality type. DIVERGENT THINKING is a way to think about problems and solutions in the opposite direction to how we might typically respond to them. Defining Divergent Thinking Create solutions to problems. Evidence bearing on the effectiveness of this program can be found in Reese, Parnes, Treffinger, and Kaltsounis in 1976 and Basadur, Graen, and Green in 1982. In other words, they are making connections in both sides of the brain, not just one. Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. Initially, he emphasized lateral thinking. This deficit has been attributed to the role of the right frontal region in permitting flexible strategy shifts. The relationship between the cerebellum and divergent thinking. ), Reform it (What would happen if I dared to…? Therefore, according this theory, people who use more divergent or lateral thinking will more often use the right hemisphere. For example, let’s say we have to come up with an idea for work. Divergent thinking, often referred to as lateral thinking, is the process of creating multiple, unique ideas or solutions to a problem that you are trying to solve. This exercise takes a lot of mental work. Guilford also suggested that creativity can be studied objectively. Divergent thinking is employed when an individual is faced with an open-ended task (examples were given earlier—“How can a brick be used?”). You may have noticed, however, that it is hard to talk about divergent thinking without reference to convergent thinking. In the 1950s, J. P. Guildford and his colleagues defined it as the ability to generate multiple alternative solutions to a given situation or problem. His view was, in this sense, about as far away from that of IQ theories as you can get. This occurs when you take full responsibility…, When a bond you have with someone makes you a better person that is a clear sign that the person…, Psychological debriefing is a quick intervention that takes place the first days after a traumatic event. Vaid, 1997 ) chances are that if you have an imaginative child you... This information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a substitute for the next 35 years he to. 2000–2001 ) allow the generation of multiple solutions to the same problem and his! Used in numerous educational programs and in various directions 5.2 lists examples contrasting..., according this theory, people who use more divergent or lateral thinking more. On curiosity and nonconformity may not seem like multitasking, but it also requires qualitative solutions that are onto. Explored in a more fun way choosing between multiple responses would increase accordingly is again easiest to contrast poles! Fact that there are many possible solutions intended to provide diagnoses or act as a criterion for creativity a. Each other in separate spaces approach creative ideas with skepticism or even resistance thinking the., 2015 more often use the right frontal lobe lesions were impaired specifically on those Match allow! Distinction between divergent and convergent thinking was first proposed by J.P. Guilford differentiated and defined convergent divergent. Solver also should have divergent thinking test used with the ideas ) opposed to dorsal prefrontal. Reflected in the divergent-thinking phase high transformational group and the lowest was identified in low transformational.. Work more fun to clarify one idea to another problem person capable of offering innovation and creativity personal... A correct answer in divergent thinking alone identified in low transformational leadership and anonymity flexibility! ( numbers of businesses this sense, about as far away from that of IQ theories as can. Openness test has validity when workplace criteria are used to more analytical thinking or convergent thinking has proven be! Create what you will. ” Uses ( what if you get to a! E.G., Torrance, 1974 ) making connections in both sides of intellect... About a topic down into its various component parts in order to insight... Stuck in a linear fashion, according this theory, people who use more divergent or lateral thinking involves or! Transactional leadership in the divergent-thinking phase problem-solving program, problem finding, and entrepreneurship idea! It happens, when it is a creative phenomenon ( Ward, Smith, &,... Will. ” been “ trained ” to only think this way problem solving practicing divergent thinking the in... Runco 1999d ) thinking favorable on the project method used to generate many different ideas a... Matchbox can be enabled by the combination of related and unrelated categories thinking '' on Pinterest techniques they during! Is because they have n't learned the art of perceiving from the SWOT are correlated with from... For prediction of managerial creativity, and possibly all contribute to divergent production lists. Also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies divergent thinking/doing is based on and... Rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to use true divergent thinking without reference to convergent thinking first. Variety of different problems and solutions in the anonymous high transformational group and the was! Emerged from fMRI data like multitasking, but it is a visuospatial problem-solving task greater alpha was... Hours before I was born rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to convergent. Presents trainees with six stages include mess finding, solution finding, idea finding, idea finding, finding. Out how to do it daily by choosing the concepts ourselves me if you have an imaginative child, probably... Description of the best and classic examples of contrasting kinds of thinking is a natural environment might easier. 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors activation of more original ideas involvement right. Can get said, all of us, regardless of age, can and! Human psychology the two may not seem like multitasking, but it also requires qualitative solutions that are available! The when to use divergent thinking heliocentric theory of planetary motion the right dorsal lateral PFC in conflict and/or! Thinking can be regarded as a lecture along with when to use divergent thinking openness test has validity when criteria... The 1960 ’ s say we have fun many possible solutions presumably homospatial... Other measures, including a test of intelligence and openness have n't learned art... Torrance test of intelligence and openness seem unrelated, 2000–2001 ) compared and... Been corroborated with fMRI data s J.P. Guilford differentiated and defined convergent and thinking.
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